Monday, March 18, 2019
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory :: Psychology Sociology Erikson Essays
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson is possibly the best known of Sigmund Freuds many followers. Hegrew up in Europe and spent his fresh adult life under the direction of Freud. In 1933when Hitler rose to world-beater in Germany, Erikson emigrated to the United States andbegan teaching at Harvard University. His clinical work and studies were ground onchildren, college students, victims of combat fatigue during World War two, civilrights workers, and American Indians. It was these studies which led Erikson tobelieve that Freud misjudged some valuable dimensions of merciful development. Throughout this essay, Eriksons psychosocial model forget be explored,discussed and evaluated interms of its concepts, theories and assumptions. Thetheoretical underpinning will be discussed with reference to the nature versus further make out and also the continuity versus discontinuity argument. It will then be shownhow Erikson has influenced the way psychologists view the importance of identityduring adolescents. Firstly, however, Eriksons work will be put alongside that ofFreuds to pass water an understanding of the basis from which it came. Eriksons psychosocial model was heavily influenced by Freud, and shares anumber of central ideas. For example, both Freud and Erikson agree that everyindividual is born(p) with a number of basic instincts, that development occurs throughstages, and that the order of these stages is influenced by biological maturation(Sigelman, and Shaffer 1992). Erikson also believes, as did Freud, that personality hasthree components the id, the ego, and the superego. thusly it is fair to say thatErikson is a psychoanalytic theorist. However, Erikson does argue that social and heathenish influences mother a criticalrole in shaping human development, and less significance should be placed on the roleof intimate urges. Freud did note however, that social agents such as parents should beregarded as important, save it is Erikson who highlights the forces within a muchbroader social environment, including peers, teachers and schools which are highlyimportant agree to Erikson. Erikson, then, moves more towards the nurture sideof the nature - nurture debate than did Freud, viewing nurture as equally important indevelopment. This nurture outlook highlights the emphasis on environmental forceswithin Eriksons model. Experiences in life, changes achieved through learning, theinfluence of methods of child rearing, societal changes and culture all have anexceptionally important role on human development according to Erickson. In addition, Eriksons theory encompasses the whole of the human life-span,outlining the stages that occur, which will be looked at more closely later on.