Sunday, March 3, 2019
UNION UNIVERSITY THE IMP motion OF shut off SCHEDULING VERSUS TRADITIONAL SCHEDULING ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT A REVIEW OF LITERATURE SUBITTED TO DR. BENNY TUCKER IN PARTIAL fulfillment OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF EDU 675 CAPSTONE RESEARCH SEMINAR BY LELA BINGHAM MAY 9, 2012 Chapter 1 Introduction As administrators and educators give way exploreed ways to handling magazine more(prenominal) productively, major multifariousnesss dedicate been occurring in blue railing naturalize con none solar solar daylight rolls. Within the context of reproduction re framing, superstar of the attri entirelyes of the handed- down in the mouthistic genteelnessal system that has been a digest for systemic channelize has been the role of clock time (Trenta & angstrom Newman, 2002).In Nichols (2005) look into, its noted that hotshot of the nearly authoritative concerns show in A Nation at put on the line publish was related to how effectively secernroom guidance time was organi sm expendd in Americas indoctrinates. Evans, Tokarczyk, Rice & adenosine monophosphate McCray (2002) deputed that this hatch offered m whatsoever recomm curioations for train reform initiatives, including restructuring for more effective use of groom time and additiond concentration on core faculty memberian subjects.According to Lawrence and McPherson (2000), administrators and teachers in America gull been criticized regarding the poor use of groom time since the 1980s (p. 178). Maltese, Dexter, Tai, and Sadler (2007) ready that approximately 66. 7% of lavishly enlighten graduates from the class of 2004 enrolled in colleges or universities, the importance of high school as a pith to prep be disciples for a sure-fire college experience is essential (p. 1).According to Zepeda and Mayers (2006), as the accountability bar rises, schools continue to explore avenues for increasing schoolchild consummation, and school leadership have tryined recent learn methods, emerging technologies, and alternate computer programing patterns to purify the pedagogics and l getness processes (p. 137). Nichols (2005) states that in retort to A Nation at Risk report, m whatever concerned educators and community leaders at in on the whole aims argued that schools should attach the distance of the school day and the school year and at the homogeneous time restructure the conventional day- later-day instrument.Trenta & group A Newman (2002) wrote that bandage well-nigh fronts have center on seeking ways to add time to the academician year and the academic day, disparate efforts have focuse on increase the time already in the calendar (p. 54). As schools seek to secure the most effective teaching strategies to increase educatee consummation, Zepeda and Mayers (2001) takes peerless in fictitious charactericular attractive option has been pack computer programing. This programming is in effect in approximately 30 per centum of th e nations secondary schools. What is kibosh- computer programming? intercept- computer programming is a method of roll the cardinal-hour school day into delays of class time.Sometimes referred to as Extended-Period agendums, whole overindulge programing is supported by advocates because it keeps learners in class for longer periods of time, reduces the tot students spend varietying in the midst of classes, and gives students and teachers more opportunities to get to know each other (www. genteelnessal activity. com). Rettig (2005) indicated that the most common type of class register use in Americas secondary schools is the traditionalisticisticisticisticistic memorandum, whereby classes usu exclusivelyy meet daily and students attend six, seven, or eight classes per day (Two Leading, para. 1).According to Queen (2000), in that respect ar obligatory steps and they remain imperative for schools examining the incident of pitiful to a exclude plan (p. 221 ). Gruber and Onwuegbuzie (2001) reported that an increase in crush scheduling in the past decade has been attributed to factors much(prenominal) as the stimulus from the business community c e rattling(prenominal)ing for fundamental trade in education (p. 33). Although cease-scheduling has been discussed for a few decades, it has become a subject of post onable debate. thither is a plethora of factors to impact students achievement but this research result focus on classroom scheduling.The employment of this analyze is to submit an assessment of the blood with school scheduling and students achievement. For the purposes of this paper, I define student achievement as each positivist result(s) occurring to the student because of the schooling process. Chapter 2 Literature Review According to Kienholz, Segal and Yellin (2003) switchs in approaches to teaching and learning ar common in schools as we endeavor to improve the education that we argon providing our student s, as well as benefactor them to achieve high levels of succeeder.In the past decade or so, hedge scheduling has become one of the most popular scheduling alternatives to the traditional account previously held by many districts. gag law scheduling is not red-hot on the frustrate. It merchant ship be traced back to the early 1960s when J. Lloyd outgo of the Oregon de pop outment of education urged that the school account be reexamined to consider longer class periods as a way of improving program line (Kienholz et al. , 2003, p. 62). When following the be quiet instrument, Rikard & Bannville (2005) stated that schools devote larger periods of time, a lot 90 transactions instead of 50 to 55 minutes, to each class period. stave off scheduling has been configured in assorted formats, including the 4 x 4 and AB formats. Under the AB format, students attend classes for approximately 95 minutes on alternate days, plot of ground on the 4 x 4 format students attend the kindred four immobiliseed classes each day for 90 consecutive days once per year (p. 26). As a result, students have fewer classes per day or term, and teachers and students should be able to focus more deeply on the textile. duration still relatively new in the world of education, glut scheduling has been the cause for much debate everywhere whether it increases student achievement or not. While the aim is to provide teachers and students with larger, fixity periods of time with which to delve deeper into class surfeit and practice. The turn back has the potential to increase student learning but only with effective usage of time. This will help answer the questions close the impact lock scheduling has on success (Rikard & Banville, 2005, p. 33). The main findings of the esearch for this paper present tuition on both sides of this argument, and discuss the head off account with relation to students, p arents and teachers wisdoms, advantages and disadvantages and f in anyy, student achievement (Rikard & Banville, 2005). learners, Parents and Teachers Perceptions As Rikard and Banville (2005) findings were consistent with previous research findings, teacher percepts indicated their trim down stress levels, a decline in student absenteeism and tardiness, and reduced student behavior problems aft(prenominal) changing to quit scheduling from a traditional format.Sixty six percent of teacher perceived that students learned more in occluded fronted versus traditional classes but they had no documented establish of that resultant (p. 26). Jones (2000) research from a high school in Southern tabun had a one-week trial period in which students and teachers participated in hold on docket. In the week ensuant to the trial period, a abide by was issued to students by regime to determine the social validity of the program. Students were not required to participate in the field.If a student chose to do so, however, they would remain anonymo us. At the time the survey was administered, 1,205 students (586 males and 609 females) elected to participate in the survey. This accounted for 57% of students that were enrolled in the high school at the time of the take in. Jones topic included dissimilar questions on the survey, with the inhabit addressing whether or not impede scheduling was an acceptable alternative to traditional scheduling. The scale by which students answered ranged from 1-5 with 1 macrocosm most tick offable and 5 strongly disagreeing.The mean score was 2. 85, which leaned more toward students in agreement of the change. However, it was clam up adequacy to the median that it could not be considered a strong decorous residuum to determine the social validity of the trial period (Jones, 2000). veau and Flinders (2001) executed a ruminate that was conducted in a high school with three contiguous memorial types. Teachers, parents and students perceptions were ascertained to determine the impact o f scheduling change on teachers and their classroom practices.The usage of Likert scale surveys, interviews, classrooms observations, and text entropy were used to compile a picture of how and why teachers adjusted to the change in schedule (p. 21). Chi-square and ANOVA analyses comparability stay, hybrid, and traditional teachers tack together material differences in four areas 1) changes in teaching methods, 2) opportunities for reflection, 3) relationship with students, and 4) levels of anxiety. According to responses from all surveys, interviews, and observational info, nurtureal methods for most of the teachers with belt up classes changed (Veal & Flinders, p. 6). A cartoon by tenners and Salvaterra (1998) included 67 teachers in four stop dead schedule high schools in Pennsylvania to see how the teachers perceived the closedown schedule, and whether or not they changed their instructional practices to accommodate that schedule. Some teachers felt up unprepared fo r the schedule change, and were worried about existenceness able to cover all of the content that they were accustomed to covering. For some, they still felt that the textbook drives the curriculum a understanding of urgency to cover the book persists (Method section, para. 2).The teachers that felt they had not received enough training for the immobilise schedule showed some resistance to shifting from traditional schedule of content or continued to use activities that did not equal well under the new schedule (Results and Discussion section, para. 8). Adams and Salvaterra prepare that while some teachers felt that the regular hexahedron schedule was a great control and looked for ways to use it to its fullest, one main finding was that Teachers in all four schools identified a select for cater phylogeny, fussyly in pedagogical techniques such as cooperative and integrated learning (The theatrical enjoyment of Staff Development, para. ). Zepeda and Mayers (2001) admi nistered a contract of 31 first-year teachers in the Midwest, all teaching on the 4 x 4 banish schedule. apiece of these teachers worked at a racially diverse school of 1,200 to 2,000 students and had graduated in spite of appearance three months of starting to teach. Zepeda and Mayers conducted interviews with these teachers at the beginning, middle, and end of year to get their perceptions of the chock up schedule. Only the teachers were interviewed, so administrative and student feedback was not included.These new teachers anchor that they were having difficulties in adjusting their instruction to the extended hold on periods, different instructions by means ofout the period, and discharge out of materials and/or activities before the end of the period (Analysis of the entropy section, para. 2). These teachers did not think that they possessed the repertoire of activities needed to successfully carry out a class on the parry schedule, and they withal uttered concern about student discipline and their inability to keep activities running smoothly (Adjusting Instruction section, para. 5). Later in this breeding, teachers withal expressed looking atings of being unprepared to assess students effectively on the dummy up schedule (Zepeda & Mayers, 2001). Veldman (2002) looks at the information from Coopersville spirited schooltime (CHS) as they transitioned from a traditional, 7-period a day schedule to a accompaniment type of block schedule (A/B Block). On one day, students would attend 4 classes, while on the following day, 3 classes with theater hall imbedded in that respectin. after(prenominal) four days of being on the A/B Block schedule, the school system found that in that respect were some(prenominal) scheduling concerns that needed to be addressed. In response to the concerns, the school system researched and surveyed and created a new form of scheduling that feature the best aspects of both traditional and block schedules per Veldman (2002). The new schedule, known as the A/B/C Schedule allowed for more instructional time during the duration of the school year. As opposed to A/B Block scheduling, which gives 90 days of classroom instruction, the A/B/C Schedule allows for 30 additional instructional days.In preparation for the implementation of the new schedule, Coopersville mettlesome enlighten (CHS) provided professional development to competency that enriched instructional techniques and teaching strategies and centre on learning styles. CHS attributed much of the success of the program to an outpouring of intercourse among all stakeholders. Although test stacks were not avai laboratoryle at the time of the issue, Veldman states that the new schedule was proving to be a success with teachers and students a exchangeable.According to Jenkins, Queen and Algozzine (2002), it peck be argued that because of the additional instructional time received on a block schedule, teachers have more of an o pportunity to utilize an assortment of instructional strategies and techniques in the classroom. In order to determine if this was true, a study was conducted to demand of teachers the types of instructional strategies used in their classrooms. Teachers from both block and traditional schedules were surveyed and responses were compared (p. 196).Jenkins et al. findings also revealed that on that point were no real similarities in the opinions of teachers on both block and traditional schedules in regards to teaching strategies. According to the survey responses, teachers from both sides of the spectrum represent the same types and varieties of teaching strategies, regardless(prenominal) of the schedule in which curriculum is being taught. Another study conducted by Payne (1996) involved a questionnaire for faculty and students whose school was on an alternating day block schedule.This schedule allowed for students to attend a scheduled set of classes, on a block schedule, one day with a contrasting set of classes on the following day. The results of the questionnaire showed that faculty felt that more instructional time allowed for more material to be presented in the classroom. They were not pressed to get a certain amount of material and/or standards presented in smaller increments in the day. Payne concluded that both faculty and students were quelled with the schedule and felt that it was a success.In a study of students with different academic profiles, Marchant and Paulson (2001) focused on the student perceptions of their alternating, A/B block schedule. Marchant and Paulson gave questionnaires to 2191 high school students in an upper class Midwest suburban high school. They wanted to know what the students perceptions of the block were in relation to areas such as behavior, student-teacher relationships, success, and their support for the block schedule. Students were broken up into clusters relating to whether they were high or low-achieving in sc hool, and hether they were able, displeased, or apathetic about their success. Marchant and Paulson finding suggest that those who were happy and already successful, responded more confident(p)ly in all categories on the questionnaire, while nearly the opposite was true for the set about-achieving students, In special(a), students who were average or high achievers, were satisfied with their achievement, and believes school is important had the highest levels of school functioning and the highest support for block scheduling (Discussion section, para. ), while, in contrast, Students who were the lowest achievers had the lowest support for block scheduling, finish off teacher relations, and worst perceptions of student behavior (Discussion section, para. 1). According to Shortt and Thayer (1998/1999), a survey was conducted by the Virginia Department of study, only 1 percent of the responding teachers and 5 percent of the responding administrators indicated that block schedulin g had a negative impact on exchangeable test gain ground. Shortt and Thayer stated that the entropy they collected indicated that teachers, administrators, and students were positive toward block scheduling.Rikard and Banville (2005) interviewed xv somatogenic education teachers at their school sites from eight high schools find in a southeastern school district in the joined res publicas (pg. 26). Consistent with previous research findings, teacher perceptions indicated their reduced stress levels, a decline in student absenteeism and tardiness, and reduced student behavior problems afterward changing to block scheduling from a traditional format. Sixty six percent of teachers perceived that students learned more in blocked versus traditional classes but they had no documented secern of that conclusion per Rikard and Banville (pg. 6). In Persins (2002) research, he researched student attitudes toward web-assisted instruction or usage of computer animations and artistry ve rsus text- ground or mental illustrations. The students responded to questions with answer options ranging from (1) strongly agree to (4) strongly disagree. The musicians boilers suit attitude toward internet-assisted instruction was 1. 93, which is somewhat high than an agree response since strongly agree is rated at 1. 00. Also, attitudes found on gender were computed with female students having a slightly more positive attitude toward internet-assisted nstruction than males, although the difference in gender group attitudes was not considered significant at alpha = . 05 (Persin, 2002, p. 65). Jenkins, Queen and Algozzines (2002) research, To block or not to block Thats not the Question, was to compare teachers opinions about their preparation for using various instructional practices as well as their use of those practices and the set asideness of employing them as part of block and traditional teaching schedules.Teachers working in block-scheduled high schools surveys we re compared with those of their peers teaching in traditional schedule classes. Jenkins et al. study included 2,000 teachers (N = 2,167) pairing Carolina high school teachers participated in this research 1,031 taught in block-schedule programs and the remainder taught on the traditional schedule for at least three years. Comparisons were do betwixt their opinions on instructional practices, appropriateness of those methods, and their level of training in those methods (p. 98). Responses to the level of use of various instructional methods showed very similar answers, except that for peer teach/peer tutoring, teachers on the block schedule reported a higher use of this strategy than id their peers teaching with a traditional schedule (p. 198). When tell questions about the appropriateness of instructional methods, again, answers were very similar. However, teachers on the block schedule reported a higher appropriateness of (p. 98) using projects than teachers on the traditional schedule. In terms of training for using different instructional practices, thither were no significant differences in the answers (Jenkins, et al. 2002) A study involving student perception of the block schedule was conducted by Slate and Jones (2000). This study used 1205 southerly Georgia high school students and asked them what they thought of the block schedule after a one week trial period.Although this was a brief accounting entry to the schedule, this study provided data for those considering moving a school to the block schedule from students who had actually had a taste of the schedule, instead of simply having it explained to them. Participation was on a voluntary basis, and data could only be taken from those who chose to participate, fashioning the sample less representative. ace disadvantage noted by the students was that they had difficulty paying attention through the longer class periods (oerall Results section, para. 1).The study had a positive outcome, as man y more students reported advantages than reported disadvantages ( overall Results section, para. 2). However, some interesting information was that while Students reported that the block schedule had important advantages, especially increase time for study, and relatively few disadvantages, they reported that block scheduling was only a slightly acceptable alternative to traditional scheduling. Some expressed a slight preference for traditional scheduling (Slate & Jones, 2000, Discussion section, para. 1).Santos and Rettig addressed special education teachers perceptions of block scheduling which included the A/B block and the 4/4 semester plan. They interviewed 18 special education teachers direct as department chairs in Virginia high schools. Nine of these teachers were serving in alternate-day (A/B) schools and nine in 4/4 schools. These schools had operated on this scheduling between 1 and 3 years. (What about fussy educationsection, para 2). The block scheduling was chosen over the traditional schedules in which the department chairs had worked.All nine 4/4 department heads expressed a preference and six of nine department chairs operating in the A/B plan preferred this variation of block scheduling over the single-period schedules (Santos & Rettig, 1999, extra Educators Speak Out section, para. 1) . Advantages and Disadvantages Despite its advantages, as Bryant & Bryant (2000) mentioned, block scheduling remains only another time-management beak unless classroom teaching/learning interactions also change. Block scheduling does provide more time with few students per classroom.It requires different instructional approaches and allows teachers to use various strategies in a single period (p. 9) Weller & McLeskey (2000) writes that teachers agreed that within the context of a block schedule, team teaching aids greatly in including students with high incidence disabilities in ecumenic education classrooms, and assists in clashing the educa tional ineluctably of all students (p. 213). Maltese, Dexter, Tai, and Sadler (2007) studied how traditional and block schedules prepared students for science in college classes.Referencing the numerical data in the form of student score, and collecting soft data and opinions through student surveys, their study concluded that at that place were points to be made for both schedules, but that neither was proven to be noticeably more successful than the other in terms of the students level of preparation. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed in research conducted by Kenney (2003), as she looks at the decisions of some schools to abandon the block schedule in favour of returning to the traditional schedule. She quotes R. B.Cobb, a professor at Colorado State University, as saying that the block schedule is a grassroots movement. It seems to hold its momentum based on the logic of it and a public opinion mention by community and educational leaders hat it just looks like i t ought to do better (para. 7). This statement relates both to the reasons for schools keeping and leaving the block schedule in this article. shoals continuing with the block schedule made that judgment call and felt that the schedule fit their needs better, and they recognized advantages in the block schedule.A student can complete 32 credits over the course of a four-year high school career. This allows four more than is likely with the seven-period day (para. 9). These schools also felt that students were less stressed on the block schedule what the block does is create a climate in which the kids feel a lot less stressnot worrying about seven different classes, seven different sets of rules, and the orifice of several different tests a day (para. 7). However, Kenney also discusses disadvantages to the block schedule, and reasons that schools and districts have moved out-of-door from this schedule.While extra time can be very beneficial in class, some administrators feel tha t many teachers used the additional minutes as busy time (Quick Abandonment section, para. 3). Additionally, there can be provideing issues in smaller schools, when you go to the block, you have to hire more teachers, thats what it boils down to (A Money Decision section, para. 3), and then there is the fact that at this point, there is no conclusive proof that the block schedule is the more successful of the two schedules, Ive never really seen any exposed, quantitative evidence that proved block scheduling was superior to the traditional schedule.There was a general feeling it was better but no one could prove it (Kenney, 2003, A Money Decision, para. 5). Santos and Rettig (1999) says The rapid spread of this innovation brings with it both benefits and concerns with regard to programming for students with disabilities. Despite the amount of information available on block scheduling, niggling research exists on the benefits and drawbacks for special education (What about special education and block scheduling section, para. 1). One particular study focused on this exact issue Is any one schedule better for students with disabilities?The study focused on a essence of 620 students (160 students with disabilities and 460 students without disabilities) from schools on traditional schedules and schools on block schedules. The schools involved had to have been on a particular schedule for a minimum of 4 years. During the first year of the study, there were 8 traditional scheduled schools and 8 block scheduled schools (4 large schools, 2 medium-sized schools, and 2 small schools). At the end of the study, a total of 12 schools participated in the study. All schools involved were 9-12 grade high schools with similar attendance and graduation rates.All traditional scheduled schools had the same amount of time in a school day and the same student/teacher ratio. The same applies for the schools on block scheduling (Santos & Rettig, 1999). Santos and Rettig survey ed 281 teachers regarding the satisfaction of the schedule on which they taught. State mandated assessment test loads in reading, lyric poem, math, science, and social studies, grade point averages, ACT test scores were reviewed from all schools to assist in find out a difference in achievement of students on block and traditional schedules.After reviewing test scores and records, it was found that there was no difference between students with disabilities and students without disabilities between either block nor traditional schedules. According to the study, this whitethorn be due to the fact that teachers on both schedule types were highly satisfied with the schedule on which their school was established. It was also discovered that teaching strategies were very similar and there was very little, if any, difference between teaching strategies.This information showed that what works for one student, may not work for another, and that it may be possible for the high achieving s tudents to be successful in any environment. While this may not be a particularised disadvantage for the block schedule, the fact that it does not always reach the low achieving student people is something to be considered when looking at the effectiveness of the schedule, or when there is the possibility of making the change to the block schedule (Santos & Rettig, 1999, Recommendations section, para. ) Student acquisition According to Queen (2000), the implementation of block scheduling was not initiated to modify student achievement directly. However, in many studies conducted nationally, the focus has been on how block scheduling influenced the academic achievement in students (p. 218). Shortt and Thayer (1998/1999) concluded that the test of any reform effort is a positive change in student achievement, in this age of accountability (p. 78).Effects on academics have been investigated primarily by studying the following grade point average, honor roll achievement, metrica l com amaze of failures and dropout rates and students performance on order tests (p. 80). Gruber and Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a study of student scores on the Georgia last check Graduation probe (GHSGT) at a school that made the transition from traditional to block scheduling. Scores were taken from before the schedule change in 1996-1997. The scores were then compared to after the schedule change of 1999-2000.While the simile was hoped to be in favor of block schedule, the findings of the study was no significant difference in GPA between the two groups. Significantly higher scores were noted for students on the traditional schedule in all four core academic areas per Gruber and Onwuegbuzie. In 2005, Nichols conducted a study comparing the academic success of students in five high schools in a large urban area in position and Language arts. Over the course of this study, Nichols noted that the block schedule did not have a noticeable impact on the achievement of students in this content area.The schools went into the block schedule transition with noticeable GPA differences between them, and in the 1998-1999 school year (several years after all schools converted to block formats), an overall mean difference in GPAs among the five schools remained (p. 301). Similarly, GPA in the undivided schools themselves did not differ greatly from year to year, and after the schedule transition. Student GPAs for River High School and South High School were ab initio lower than for other high schools in the district and after block reincarnations, the students more often than not maintained the lower achievement (p. 02). Unfortunately, the same was true for higher tally students, Oak High School and North High School were initially two of the higher achieving high schools in the district, and their renewal to block scheduling appeared to have little or no impact on student achievement in English or language arts courses (p. 303). The one noticeable area of change that Nichols does notice is that the number of students taking English and language arts increased substantially after these schools changed to block schedule (p. 207).Lawrence and McPherson (2000) conducted a study comparing the traditional and block scheduling scores of students in two high schools in the same district on the North Carolina end of course tests in the core subjects. The two schools used were chosen because they were some of the first to necessitate the block scheduling model. data were taken on the traditional schedule from 1992 1994 and on the block schedule from 1994 1996. While evidence was expected to be found to support the success of the block schedule, this was not the case.For each of the four core subject test, the mean score for the traditional schedule was consistently higher than the mean scores for the block schedule (hypothesis 4, para. 2), however, there was significant support for the block schedule when using the students final classroo m grades for resemblance (results, para. 4). The outcome could be based on many factors, such as tests being more fast tied to curriculum, or the standardized tests covering more material than students are used to on classroom tests (Lawrence & McPherson, 2000).While looking at standardized testing, the College Board Office of Research and Development did a study in 1998 that compared advanced placement test scores of students on both the block and the traditional schedule, and found that students on the traditional schedule scored better. Lawrence and McPherson noted that there were also differences in performance between students that study the coursework on the block schedule in the spring versus the fall semester, as they were more take away from the course at the time of the test, or had not yet end the course when the test was administered.Zepeda and Mayers (2006) data favored those students on the traditional schedule. These studies indicate that research shows that pr os exists for both types of schedules and more data needs to be self-possessed and analyzed in order to find a conclusive answer. The purpose of this project was to collect data from two different school districts operating on the block schedule at the high school level to obtain personal perceptions and opinions of the block schedule from both students and ply. These perceptions and opinions focused on whether or not the block schedule is seen as a positive class structure.Using a survey that was administered to both 10th grade students and staff at the participating schools, this data was collected and analyzed to make comparisons between student and staff perceptions, as well as noting any coefficient of correlation between positive views and feelings of success on the block schedule. The analysis of this study was completed in three phases (1) an extensive search of the research concerning block scheduling, (2) construction of a matrix depicting the results of the search, and (3) analysis of the studies included in the matrix. p. 142). The goal of this study was to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative data in the form of responses obtained through survey questionnaires. It was expected that the data would lean in favor of the block schedule, and would show trends or specific areas in which teachers and/or students feel that the block schedule is helping them to be successful, as well as reasons, methods, or activities that the survey participants feel are particularly beneficial or effective with regard to the block schedule (Zepeda & Mayers, 2006).As Kenny (2003) mentioned in her article, Watauga High School laid in North Carolina is using a schedule that combines the traditional and block schedule, and they have found similar advantages to the block classes. Watauga schedule includes both traditional and block length courses, and the number of classes that a student has each term depends upon how many blocks they spot to take. It is possible for them to take between four, all block, and eight, all traditional, classes at any condition time.This schedule has been implemented because the school decided that their philosophical position was that neither all block nor all traditional schedules best process all students, teachers, and subjectswe review student performance, teacher opinion, and available research every year to determine how to best offer the particular course under review (p. 49). Through this schedule, the school is showing that their intent is the best interest of their students and teachers, and the learning process.As they continue to work with the block schedule, they note that some of its advantages are less homework each night because of a lighter course reduce (p. 48), that it can help at-risk students because they usually have two major academic blocks each semester, allowing them to focus more on academics because they have fewer courses (p. 48), also that block courses are taught in a more hands-on-way (p. 48). In a detail evaluation of the Copernican plan, Carroll (1994) focused on the letter grades that students earned in their classes, and finds support for the block schedule looking at this end result for students in a course.The 2007 research done by Hynes-Hunter and Avery, focused on the effects of block scheduling on physical education although this topic has been neglected. Four high schools and one middle school located in the Northeast, and one high school and one middle school located on the West bank United States, were selected to participate in this study. When compared with exceptional physical education classes, students in this study spent more time in waiting and management, and less time receiving information and in daily activities (p. 174). Block scheduling creates enough time for students to develop physical skill and for teachers to measure and document skill development. Also, this scheduling allows students to spend up to(predicate) time on fitness development to actually experience ameliorate physical fitness per researchers (p. 178). Hynes-Hunter and Avery (2007) referenced the research from Claxton and Bryant (1996) clarified that it is a possibility that the ideal place for physical education in the new block will rely on the reputation of the existing physical education program.The authors felt that if physical education was regarded as a class which met no expenditurewhile objectives, the transition to block may be a at rest time to eliminate it. But if it was seen as a vital part of the school program, it has a good guess of assuming an equal role with other subjects (p. 175). Based on the research from Ron Persin (2002), There was a prominent increase in Physics honours final exam scores when a high school physics teacher implemented a website for instruction in a block schedule.The site was used to deliver hebdomadal lecture notes, plans, and assignments while also providing links to other sou rces of information in physics. More time in class was available for demonstrations, group lab activities, and multimedia presentations. The research involved comparing the final exam scores in honors physics during three consecutive four-year periods from 1991-2002. Class means showed that the exam scores decreased when the school switched from the seven period-day to the 4 by 4 block, and then increased when the block schedule was enhanced with Web-Assisted Instruction (p. 1). In yet another study, two types of block schedules (44 and A/B) and traditional schedules were compared and examined. Ninth grade mathematics and reading standardized test scores were evaluated under each schedule, along with the ACT, which was administered during the students junior year of high school. Scheduling types, gender, and ethnicity were observed to determine what, if any, influence they had on test scores. Participants involved came from 7 junior high and high schools in Colorado Spring, Colorado .After the data were reviewed, findings of this study suggests that the 44 block schedule maintained significant gains in the areas of mathematics and reading on the standardized test administered in the 9th grade. ACT scores also revealed that students on a 44 block schedule exceed those on the A/B block and traditional schedules. Gender and ethnicity had no influence on the outcome of test scores. Because of the findings, this study slightly backs the idea of block scheduling (Lewis, 2005).When questions are asked or surveys are completed regarding the use of technology in the curriculum, the overwhelming majority of instructors would say that they are utilizing available technology. Based on the success of this author, it seems that Web-Assisted instruction can be used to enhance learning physics by students in the block schedule. The rudiments of using technology effectively to increase teaching methods must be operates and implemented by all (p. 68). Problems with appropriate use of class time and its impact on student achievement have remained unresolved (Queen, 2000, p. 218). Ten of his fifteen recommendations for the future that he believes are important to maximize the positive impact of block scheduling are 1. Teachers must develop and follow monthly, weekly, and daily pacing guides. 2. Teachers must master a minimum of five instructional strategies to engage students directly in the learning process and should aim to master seven or eight. 3. Teachers should footfall each lesson by changing grouping patterns, varying presentations, and using different instructional activities every 10 to 15 minutes. In most cases a teacher should use a minimum of three instructional strategies during any class period. . Teachers should incorporate alternative and authentic assessment practices when evaluating students. 5. Teachers must use the entire class period for instruction. Every day. 6. Teachers should strive to be creative and flexible in assigning activi ties and should incorporate outside assignments in to regular classroom activities. 7. Teachers should monitor individual students participation in small and large groups. 8. Successful block teachers should mentor, formally or informally, beginning teachers and veteran teachers having difficulty with instruction in block scheduling. . Principals or staff development personnel must provide initial and continuing staff development for all teachers throughout the year on the topics of curriculum and instructional alignment, instructional pacing and strategies, and time management. 10. Principals must develop a monitor team to verify that all teachers are using pacing guides and various instructional strategies effectively (Queen, 2000, p. 221). In essence, the success is very dependent on the professional that implement the scheduling.It is important that the principals, teachers, students, and parents give the same level of attentions and effort to block scheduling as other scheduli ng options (Queen 2000, p. 222). Veal and Flinders (2001) discloses that in the state of Massachusetts, it is mandatory for a student to pass (or score proficient) on language arts and mathematics portions of the MCAS during the spring semester of their sophomore year in order to graduate with a high school diploma. In 2001, one Massachusetts school, North Reading High School converted to block scheduling.A study was conducted to determine if achievement, as it pertains to the MCAS, increased after the implementation of the new scheduling system (Veal & Flinders, 2001). Participants of this study consisted of 762 students who took the MCAS during their sophomore year in high school. The years in which data were collected are as follows 1998-1999 mathematics and language arts scores (one year prior to the transformation to block scheduling) 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 mathematics and language arts scores (two years after block scheduling was implemented). Results showed that in 2001 study, students on the traditional schedule, 73. 3% of the 290 students well-tried passed the mathematics and language arts portions of the MCAS. In the years following the change to block scheduling, 472 students participated in the exam, with 89. 19% of students obtaining a passing score. The outcome provides evidence that there was a significant increase in passing grades for the MCAS at North Reading High School. Veal and Flinders believed that the investment of professional development for teachers prior to the instatement of block schedule may have contributed to the improvement of test scores.Implementation of the block scheduling system can be a pricy change for any school, this school found it to be an effective change (Veal & Flinders, 2001). The purpose of Trenta and Newmans (2002) study was to determine the impact block schedules had on students grade point averages (GPAs) in required English/language arts courses. Data were collected from five high schools several years prior to the block schedule conversion. Each schools creation varied in student socio-economic status and ethnicity.The hypothesis established was that GPAs in required English/language arts classes would not be squeeze or affected by transition to block scheduling. The researcher used student GPAs and an ANOVA analysis of variance as methods of analysis for obtained data. Resulting from the study, it was found that the majority of schools scores increased the first year after the conversion to block schedule, but eventually reverted back to the pre-block average in subsequent years. Only one school maintained a calm down increase in GPAs after the change to block scheduling.Upon the request of a mid-western school board, an evaluation was conducted on the districts high school block scheduling program. The evaluators, Trent and Newman, were asked to conduct the evaluation based on hard data, not opinions. Therefore, Trenta and Newman evaluation of the school consisted of f inding the relationship between block scheduling and * Student grades (based on math, English, science, & social studies GPAs) * Ohio Proficiency Test (OPT) Scores * ACT Scores * Attendance RateTrenta and Newman states that subjects of the study consisted of a total of 500 students from the graduating classes of 1997, 2000, 2001, and 2002 (125 from each class) who attended the school from their freshman year through graduation. Data were collected from each students transcript for this study. Results of the study showed that there was a positive relationship between students grades and block scheduling. The same held true for the OPT scores. Although these outcomes cannot be directly attributed to block scheduling, Trenta and Newman (2002) believe that the scheduling change influenced the data concerning grades and OPT scores.ACT scores however, showed no significant relationship to block scheduling. In the case of attendance, the data fluctuated so much so that the relationship to block scheduling, or lack thereof, was indefinite. It was concluded that the evidence for this particular high school shows that block scheduling had an influence on students academic success (Trent & Newman, 2002). Nichols (2005) believes that there is limited support that suggests that block-scheduled schools may have a direct positive effect on improving student achievement.Several schools reported that percentages of earned A grades increased tremendously after block implementation (p. 300). In 1994, a high school located in the Western portion of the United States, converted from a traditional 7-period/day schedule to a 44 block schedule. The intent of this conversion was to offer more course options for the students and to create a less-stressed and slower paced standard atmosphere for both students and teachers. Five years after implementation of block scheduling, the film director of schools sought for a method by which the program could be evaluated.In 1998, Adam an d Salvaterra, assessed, among other things, whether or not block scheduling was cost-effective for this particular district. Since the concept of education and knowledge cannot be fiscally measured, the researchers had to establish several methods of evaluation in determining the value of block scheduling compendium of qualitative and quantitative data collection of information on the perception of block scheduling by teachers and parents (in the form of surveys) and visits to the school in which observations were made and interviews conducted (parents, teachers, administrators, focus groups).Survey instruments were analyzed by the use of descriptive and chi statistics. After reviewing data, it was determined that after the implementation of block scheduling * Attendance remained steady (90% attendance rate) * A Honor Roll increased * B Honor Roll remained the same * D & F scores slightly decreased * College entrance exams did not have any significant changes * Overall academic achievement remained stable Although academic achievement varied little, results showed that in reference to the A and B honor roll, students performed better under block scheduling.Other areas evaluated included the professional development/training for block scheduling for faculty. Surveys showed that although there was little training was provided to teachers, in-services compensated and aided teachers in preparing to each under the block schedule. In block scheduling, teachers are allotted a readiness time which is almost double that of a traditional schedule. This time was not being monitored by administration. Results from surveys and interviews showed that faculty and administration could more effectively utilize this time.However, results also showed that teachers use this time to work more closely with students in providing additional assistance and also in preparing for the lesson/unit that is being taught. Would there be much change, if any, in the results of student ach ievement? Would it be worth the financial and educational costs of implementing a new type of schedule? Teachers should also be trained on how to instruct under a new scheduling type. By doing so, teachers will be equipped with the necessary tools by which they can adequately educate students under a particular type of schedule (Jenkins, 2002).Chapter 3 Summary As I looked into the research, reports and articles, it is clear that there are disadvantages and certainly advantages for the use of the block schedule. When one study reports lower test scores on the block schedule in an area, it is possible to find another study with contradictory findings. The majority of the studies reviewed showed that there was no significant difference in student achievement based upon the type of scheduling. Studies where students showed improvement in block scheduling, however, had several external factors that may have impacted student achievement (i. e. xtensive research among students, teachers, and parents prior to implementing a new type of schedule, teacher in-service training as pertains to block scheduling, etc). One underlying theme throughout the literature was that the majority of, if not all of the stakeholders, need to be on-board and coached prior to the implementation of a new or different schedule. I concur with Wronkovich, the decision whether or not to adopt block scheduling should be based on the examination of rate of flow research. Schools should establish measurable goals and set a timetable for evaluating the outcomes of block scheduling (para. ). Block schedules can potentially ease the transition from the homelike atmosphere of the unsubdivided school to the departmentalized environment of the high school by reducing the need for constant class changes and the number of classes students have on any given day, while providing increased content emphases and time on task. The blocked time schedule also gives even disorganized students a fighting chance to keep abreast of assignments and projects (Mowen & Mowen, 2004, p. 50). I have found that the research is still inconclusive as to which schedule better serves the educational needs of students.Like with any topic, there are studies and research that favor arguments on both sides, indicating that more information is definitely needed. 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